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羅偉分享——二胡曲《戰馬奔騰》演奏提示

發布日期:2018-06-01

雙層底托設計,整筒制作工藝,三年退換保障!這就是龍韻二胡

敢為人先的創新和誠信,源于強大的社會責任感!

    本文由中國民族管弦樂學會會員、中國音協二胡學會會員、國家二級作曲、中國音協二胡高級考官——羅偉先生授權發布。


聲音是大自然中某種物體振動所產生的音波,超出人的聽覺范圍的(太高或太低)超聲波。研究音響的物理學家,把大自然中人們能聽到的聲音用振動頻率來計算,單位是赫茲。定出統一標淮,按一定規律排列,分為樂音噪音

 

樂音(即十二平均率)是表現音樂作品的基本音律。許多作曲家巧妙的運用噪音為音樂作品服務,也屢見不鮮,常常收到出其不意的效果,使表現力更為豐富多彩。

 

著名二胡演奏家陳耀星創作的經典二胡曲《戰馬奔騰》就是一首運用噪音,或者說是噪音和樂音相結合十分成功且又典型的優秀作品。

 

該曲主題明確,形象清晰,首先告之人們的主角是,而且是戰斗中的馬”(二戰后騎兵逐漸消失)。既然是戰火中的戰馬,它不同于平日的溜馬賽馬馬術表演,它要表現戰場上銷煙彌漫槍林彈雨戰馬嘶鳴勇猛殺敵騎兵英雄形象。

 

樂曲旋律釆用蒙族民間音樂素材,風格突出,有一定程度的演奏者不會有太大的困難。這里著重分析一下樂曲中的特技部分半音諧大擊弓雙弦快速抖弓馬嘶鳴的演奏基本要領。

 

樂曲162小節至175小節連續的上行、下行迂回的半音階,不能把它對照鋼琴的十二平均律來演奏,也不須用十二平均律的音準來要求它,否則吃力不討好。

 

其實,分兩步就可解決:將這十四小節每拍的第一個音(十六分音符)單獨提出來,都用四指按弦,背熟,再將其余三指靠攏,分別離弦,這樣,每拍的四個"半音”就演奏出來了。

 

由此類推,后面也采用同樣奏法,連貫并加快速度。連續的半音階式的背景效果,表現出戰斗中的緊張氣氛。我們通常碰上半音都要兩指靠攏,由于各人的指尖粗細有別,這種靠攏的半音也略有差別,這種音準上的微略差別,無須用十二平均律的絕對音高來對照音準,不影響它作為背景襯托的功能效果。但四指所按的每拍第一個音的音準備好要求到位,連貫起來,加快速度,戰斗中騎兵聲東擊西,步步緊逼的緊張氣氛表現得淋漓盡致。

 

演奏大擊弓時,右手將弓根握在手心上,捏攏,手腕相對僵硬,將弓桿提起來,與琴弦形成304O度銳角,將外弦繃緊,上下擊弦,產生嗒咯,嗒咯的馬蹄效果,模擬戰馬的奔跑速度。左手按弦5575的配合,使前后馬蹄不同的聲響更為逼真。也可用內外弦輪換擊弦,效果同樣。

 

雙弦快速抖弓是該曲另一特殊技巧。樂曲記譜是高音26快速抖弓七拍至中音26一拍,實際演奏是用一指從高音26逐步,快速下滑至中音26,共用八拍完成下滑動作。聽覺上注重雙音的低音。

 

175小節笫一個高音6是四指所按,它的內弦是高音2(內外弦純五度關系)176小節的第一個裝飾音,內弦正是二指的7,用二指快速從7滑到高音2,同時將弓桿立起耒,貼緊外弦,快速抖弓。弓毛接觸的是內弦音(即雙音的底下音),弓桿接觸的是外弦音,由于弓毛抖出的低音明顯強于弓桿所產生的外弦音,重點注意內弦音,由于純五度關系,外弦音不必理會,在八拍之內完成。

 

18O小節換成一指,采用同樣奏法,馬尾奏出的內弦音明亮、清晰,相比之下外弦音就顯得暗談,演奏時右手力度注意平衡使雙音效果更佳。

 

馬嘶聲,先拉出內弦最高泛音2,用快速推弓連頓弓下滑至高音7,模擬馬的嘶嗚,效果逼真。若是齊奏,一點更象群馬齊嗚,氣勢雄壯。

 

這個內弦最高泛音2,靠近琴筒,是下把位中最明亮的泛音(在挑選二胡時,對琴的優劣很有參考作用),酷似馬的嘶嗚。

 

在奏出兩短一長,連續的馬嘶嗚之后,雄壯、歡快的三連音連頓弓號角聲中,樂曲情緒不斷增強。全曲在特強后轉弱,繼而漸強,達到最強fff后結束,揭示了戰斗的最后勝利!

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? 2006~2020 龍韻二胡官網 | 江西九江龍韻二胡廠版權所有 | 贛ICP備15012806號-1 | 贛公網安備贛公網安備 36040302000129號

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