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羅偉分享——二胡保養改良心得

發布日期:2018-05-29

本文作者系中國民族管弦樂學會會員、中國音協二胡學會會員、國家二級作曲、中國音協二胡高級考官——羅偉


(一) 巧換弓毛


二胡演奏者大都有過這樣的煩惱,一支用習慣了且十分喜愛的琴弓,使用時間一長,馬尾的"倒刺"磨平了,弓毛越來越少,很不"吃弦"。換一支吧,又因其長度、重量、彈性等問題,一時很不適應,不如老琴弓好用。不適應的主要原因是弓桿的問題。若保留原弓桿,換上新馬尾,問題不就解決了。


將你習慣用的弓桿靠近弓尖處(馬尾穿過的孔洞左側),用刮胡刀切出一條小槽,(和弓毛同方向)小槽的寬度略比內弦粗一點,從切出的小槽處取出舊弓毛,選一支弓毛長度和舊弓毛一樣長的新琴弓,(馬尾數量適度),將弓尖處橫向切斷,用小刀破開竹桿,取出新弓毛,從舊琴弓切出的小槽裝進去,用細線梱繞幾圈小槽處,再將弓毛的最前端用尼龍線按原樣編織好,裝好弓根的螺絲鈕,一支你所喜愛的琴弓就換上了新馬尾,以后也按此方法更換弓毛,弓桿可以長期使用。如弓毛仍不整齊,可用打火機對著松馳的馬尾來回幾下加熱,(要有一定的距離,不要停留在一個點上),松馳的馬尾受熱后立即收縮,和其它馬尾一樣平整,此方法也可用于其它弓弦樂器對弓毛的修整。


(二) 減壓桿的使用


一把精制的二胡若保養不妥,會大大縮短其使用壽命,最為重要的是對琴皮的保護。琴弦定到特定高度后,對琴碼施加了強大的壓力,琴碼又將所受到的壓力轉稼于蛇皮,長此下去,琴皮就會下凹,琴的音質大受影響。不少教科書上提到要將琴碼上移,或將琴弦放松,都不是好辦法。取一小段直經和琴碼高度一致的圓型竹桿,“長度和琴筒橫向直徑相同,兩端分別套進一小段塑料軟管,使用時,左手指將琴弦頂起,放進減壓桿,用滾動的方式靠近琴碼,用琴時用同樣辦法向上滾動取出。此方法既減輕了琴皮的壓力,又能起到弱音的作用,對保護琴皮十分重要。


(三) 不銹鋼墊片的作用


琴弓與琴筒的接觸點,粘有一塊長條型的護皮墊片,通常使用的材料是玳瑁或其它材質的,作用是防止琴弓對琴皮的損傷。時間一長,兩弦之間拉成了一條“溝”,許多演奏者又在上面再貼一段膠布,可時隔不久,白色的膠布臟兮兮,一道溝的現象仍然避免不了。筆者試用不銹鋼薄片代替玳瑁,不僅外表凈亮、美觀,"一條溝"的現象也解決了。意外的是,二胡的音質"亮度""金屬感"均得到加強,于是,我將我全部二胡都換上了不銹鋼墊片,幾乎所有的音質都得到改觀。


(四) 琴筒墊板對音質的影響


我原本有把老式圓桿紅木二胡,重新蒙皮后,音質不甚理想,尤其琴筒托板偏輕,穩定性差,手感欠佳。偶見龍韻牌二胡琴筒托板下加裝了塊類似“鞋墊”的墊扳,我即將老琴加裝了此墊板。出其意外的是,不僅增加了整個琴的手感份量,音質音量發生了神奇變化。我以為是一把琴偶爾所致,為證實其優異之處,將所藏二胡全部改裝了琴托墊板,幾乎全都在音色音量上都發生了變化。我特拜訪享譽全國的二胡制作大師辜存雄先生,辜大師解釋說:“促成二胡高品味音質,需要多方面的綜合條件。其中音源振動體(琴弦)的有效長度(千斤至琴碼)在同等音高的前提下,千斤越高,音質音量越佳。”琴底部加了塊類似鞋墊樣的墊板后,琴碼至固定琴弦螺絲的距離拉長了,琴弦的振動長度也增加了,音量音色的變化效果明顯,這在全國的二胡制作上是獨一無二的。其次,琴筒與人體的接觸面減小,有利于音量的傳導,對加大音量有幫助。不妨可以將別的牌子的二胡加裝龍韻的琴托墊片,看看其聲音有何變化?二胡演奏者可試試。


羅偉   2018.5.12


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