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二胡演奏技术的发展

发布日期:2017-04-15

  二胡是?#22812;?#27665;族乐队中最有代表性的重要?#21046;?#20043;一。在音乐会上,它不但能和扬琴、筝以及小型乐队等伴奏?#38382;?#21512;作,而且?#35270;?#21516;钢琴同台演出。在目前出现的一些二胡协奏曲中,它与大型民族管弦乐队合作,来表现重大、深刻的音?#31181;?#39064;和气势雄伟磅礴的音乐作品时,琴声更为扣人心弦、沁人肺腑。

  远在九百多年以前,古人在二胡的前身嵇琴的演奏艺术上已达到一定水平。北来沈括在《梦溪笔谈?#20998;性?#35760;述道:“熙宁中(1068~1077)宫宴,教坊伶人徐衍奏嵇琴,方进酒而一弦绝,衍更不易琴,只用一弦终其曲。”演奏者当时已具有的非凡技艺由此可见?#35805;摺?#35848;到二胡在今天民族乐队中的重要地位,使我们更加深切怀念为二胡演奏技术的发展作出重大贡献的?#22812;?#26480;出的民族音乐家刘天华先生(1895~1932)。二胡“自有天华,乃登上品。”刘天华最早明确了二胡固定音高定弦法则。他设计的新规格二胡,奠定了今天二胡制作的基础。他精通中西?#21046;鰨?#25226;小提琴等西洋?#21046;?#30340;演奏技法创造性地运用到二胡上,极大地丰富了二胡的音?#30452;?#29616;力,使其从传统的伴乐地位一跃而为音乐会上的独奏?#21046;鰲!?#31354;山鸟语?#20998;心?#21516;音异指轮音奏法,高音区两个八度内的反复大跳绰注,生动地描绘出“空?#35762;?#35265;人,但闻鸟语声”的意境。《光明?#23567;?#22312;内外弦上变化重复气魄宏伟的旋律,展现了一幅人们对生活充满希望、奔向光明的画面。无论?#27973;?#22812;小唱的《良宵》,还是借景抒情的?#23545;?#22812;?#20998;?#22768;,十大名曲作为二胡艺术宝库中的珍品,无不显示着刘天华卓越的作曲技能和演奏技术,在二胡的发展史上写下了前无古人的光辉篇章,为二胡演奏技术的发展开拓了使音乐界为之震惊而?#25991;?#30456;视的前景。

  二胡演奏技术的发展过程,从一个意义上来说,就是?#21046;?#26412;身在人类社会历史的发展中从雏形、逐渐定型直至趋向更加完善的过程;而从另一方面来说,更重要的则是有待于大批不仅适合?#21046;?#28436;奏。而且能大力挖掘?#21046;?#38899;?#30452;?#29616;潜力的新作品问世。二胡演奏技术的高速发展,尤其是50年代以来,是和大批优秀二胡曲的涌现同步的。换句?#20843;擔?#19968;首优秀二胡新曲的出现,往往预示着二胡演奏技术上一个新的飞跃和发展。

  如果没有刘天华先生的二胡曲,当时的二胡演奏技术?#31570;?#21487;能?#40644;平?#29992;一个固定把位演奏的传?#24120;?#32780;采用移?#35805;?#20301;的方法一下子将音程从狭窄的九度扩展到三个八度,使左手运指技巧在琴弦上有了舒展的用武之地。50年代曾出现不少二胡曲,大都以农村生活情景为题和描绘田园风光为主,《赶集》、《山村变?#25628;?#23601;是当时有影响的作品。这些乐曲通常为三段曲式结构,充分发挥了二胡擅长演奏优美抒情和富有歌唱性旋律的特点。

  60年代初,《三门峡畅想曲》以钢琴为合作伙伴,用回族曲式的体裁再现了三门峡水库工程雄伟的建设场面和工人阶级的豪情壮志,似滚滚黄河波涛一举冲破束缚人们视野的桎梏,高亢激昂的音调使人们对二胡的表现力不得不重新作出新的估量。70年代,二胡独奏曲《战马奔腾》首次用大击弓作马蹄声的模仿,用双音技法来表现紧张激烈的练兵场面。这独具匠心的创造发挥,引起了音乐界新的轰动,激起了人们发展二胡演奏技术的更大热情。

  历史发展到今天的80年代,二胡协奏曲相继涌现。集二胡演奏技术之大成的。《长城随想》的四个乐章,既继承了传统的技法又运用了现代的高难技巧,音?#25351;?#26580;相济、激奋人心。用二胡这一民族?#21046;?#26469;歌颂中华民族的象征、举世闻名的长城,寓意深刻,赢得了人们普遍的赞叹。著名二胡演奏家闵惠芬在演奏该曲后兴奋地说,这部作品把她多年来想在二胡中表达的东西全部开掘了出?#30784;?/p>

  音?#30452;?#29616;的主题从小到大,从农村走向工业,由描绘生活的某个侧面到推向更宏深的领域,论古颂今,纵横抒?#24120;?#26159;刘天华先生之后的五十多年里二胡曲的创作发展过程,同时也带来了二胡演奏技术的突飞猛进。可以这样认为;在一个时代中为人们所公认的优秀二胡作品,同时也就是二胡演奏技术在这一时代发展规模的一块里程碑。在里程碑的衔接和?#30001;?#20013;,我们看到了二胡演奏技术发展的足迹。

  生活不仅是音乐的源泉,它更是推动音乐创作和加速二胡演奏技术发展的强大动力。在当今世界科学技术已进入了信息革命的时代,尤为如此。如果说以往二胡以演奏慢速深沉涵蓄、中速抒情欢唱旋律为长的话,那么,今天现代二胡演奏技术则以高速运弓、快中见长、刚中含柔为发展主型。如今,二胡的快弓技术已完全可与小提琴并驾齐驱。

  二胡艺术发展到今天,出现了?#27827;?#32858;会、妙曲竞起、繁弦争鸣的繁荣局面。闵惠芬的《宝玉哭灵》、?#29420;?#38517;碑》等,用大幅度的滑揉等技法来模仿越剧和京剧的唱腔音乐,似一枝奇葩散发着独特的芳香。刘长福的二胡曲《草原新牧民》充满了浓郁的草原气息,乐曲的华彩乐段把马头琴技法表现得惟妙惟肖,使人拍案叫绝。陈耀星描写部队战斗生活的。《乘胜?#22346;鰲貳ⅰ?#21457;射场上》,美妙的音响和神奇的速度更是令人惊叹折服。春天的花园要?#21487;?#24425;?#22836;?#30340;花草来点缀,二胡艺术的发展也有待于众家扬己之长、各显神威。不过,现代二胡演奏技术的发展还是以快弓技术飞速发展为特征。在以改造和完善?#21046;?#26412;身结构为手段,来达到发展二胡演奏技术目的的努力中,双千斤二胡闯出了一条?#19978;?#30340;希望之路。使用双千斤,可使内弦空弦音比?#35805;?#20108;胡向下扩展了一个纯四度音程,音色?#32479;?#27985;厚。这条改革措施已为二胡界所肯定,一些双千斤二胡曲应时而生。为增大音量,使音色更优美,对二胡琴筒形状的革新?#27493;?#25253;频传。另外,人们还试?#20960;?#20108;胡增加一条弦,使其演变为“三胡?#20445;?#20294;?#24418;?#26368;后定型和推广使用。再者,尚有人一直呼吁将二胡弓子从两根琴弦的夹制中解放出?#30784;?/p>

  二胡这种?#21046;?#30340;革新必将为二胡增添动人的音符。科学技术的发展曾不止一次地证明,今天富有浪漫色彩的幻想有可能成为明天的现实,科学的幻想往往是科学技术取得重大进展的前提。我们完全可?#38901;?#20449;并期待在不久的将来出现更加完美无瑕的二胡新品种,进而使二胡演奏技术的发展呈现更辉煌的前景。二胡演奏技术的发展史册上,前人的业绩熠熠生辉,激励着后人奋进搏击。

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