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二胡演奏技術的發展

發布日期:2017-04-15

  二胡是我國民族樂隊中最有代表性的重要樂器之一。在音樂會上,它不但能和揚琴、箏以及小型樂隊等伴奏形式合作,而且適于同鋼琴同臺演出。在目前出現的一些二胡協奏曲中,它與大型民族管弦樂隊合作,來表現重大、深刻的音樂主題和氣勢雄偉磅礴的音樂作品時,琴聲更為扣人心弦、沁人肺腑。

  遠在九百多年以前,古人在二胡的前身嵇琴的演奏藝術上已達到一定水平。北來沈括在《夢溪筆談》中曾記述道:“熙寧中(1068~1077)宮宴,教坊伶人徐衍奏嵇琴,方進酒而一弦絕,衍更不易琴,只用一弦終其曲。”演奏者當時已具有的非凡技藝由此可見一斑。談到二胡在今天民族樂隊中的重要地位,使我們更加深切懷念為二胡演奏技術的發展作出重大貢獻的我國杰出的民族音樂家劉天華先生(1895~1932)。二胡“自有天華,乃登上品。”劉天華最早明確了二胡固定音高定弦法則。他設計的新規格二胡,奠定了今天二胡制作的基礎。他精通中西樂器,把小提琴等西洋樂器的演奏技法創造性地運用到二胡上,極大地豐富了二胡的音樂表現力,使其從傳統的伴樂地位一躍而為音樂會上的獨奏樂器。《空山鳥語》中那同音異指輪音奏法,高音區兩個八度內的反復大跳綽注,生動地描繪出“空山不見人,但聞鳥語聲”的意境。《光明行》在內外弦上變化重復氣魄宏偉的旋律,展現了一幅人們對生活充滿希望、奔向光明的畫面。無論是除夜小唱的《良宵》,還是借景抒情的《月夜》之聲,十大名曲作為二胡藝術寶庫中的珍品,無不顯示著劉天華卓越的作曲技能和演奏技術,在二胡的發展史上寫下了前無古人的光輝篇章,為二胡演奏技術的發展開拓了使音樂界為之震驚而刮目相視的前景。

  二胡演奏技術的發展過程,從一個意義上來說,就是樂器本身在人類社會歷史的發展中從雛形、逐漸定型直至趨向更加完善的過程;而從另一方面來說,更重要的則是有待于大批不僅適合樂器演奏。而且能大力挖掘樂器音樂表現潛力的新作品問世。二胡演奏技術的高速發展,尤其是50年代以來,是和大批優秀二胡曲的涌現同步的。換句話說,一首優秀二胡新曲的出現,往往預示著二胡演奏技術上一個新的飛躍和發展。

  如果沒有劉天華先生的二胡曲,當時的二胡演奏技術就不可能突破僅用一個固定把位演奏的傳統,而采用移換把位的方法一下子將音程從狹窄的九度擴展到三個八度,使左手運指技巧在琴弦上有了舒展的用武之地。50年代曾出現不少二胡曲,大都以農村生活情景為題和描繪田園風光為主,《趕集》、《山村變了樣》就是當時有影響的作品。這些樂曲通常為三段曲式結構,充分發揮了二胡擅長演奏優美抒情和富有歌唱性旋律的特點。

  60年代初,《三門峽暢想曲》以鋼琴為合作伙伴,用回族曲式的體裁再現了三門峽水庫工程雄偉的建設場面和工人階級的豪情壯志,似滾滾黃河波濤一舉沖破束縛人們視野的桎梏,高亢激昂的音調使人們對二胡的表現力不得不重新作出新的估量。70年代,二胡獨奏曲《戰馬奔騰》首次用大擊弓作馬蹄聲的模仿,用雙音技法來表現緊張激烈的練兵場面。這獨具匠心的創造發揮,引起了音樂界新的轟動,激起了人們發展二胡演奏技術的更大熱情。

  歷史發展到今天的80年代,二胡協奏曲相繼涌現。集二胡演奏技術之大成的。《長城隨想》的四個樂章,既繼承了傳統的技法又運用了現代的高難技巧,音樂剛柔相濟、激奮人心。用二胡這一民族樂器來歌頌中華民族的象征、舉世聞名的長城,寓意深刻,贏得了人們普遍的贊嘆。著名二胡演奏家閔惠芬在演奏該曲后興奮地說,這部作品把她多年來想在二胡中表達的東西全部開掘了出來。

  音樂表現的主題從小到大,從農村走向工業,由描繪生活的某個側面到推向更宏深的領域,論古頌今,縱橫抒懷,是劉天華先生之后的五十多年里二胡曲的創作發展過程,同時也帶來了二胡演奏技術的突飛猛進。可以這樣認為;在一個時代中為人們所公認的優秀二胡作品,同時也就是二胡演奏技術在這一時代發展規模的一塊里程碑。在里程碑的銜接和延伸中,我們看到了二胡演奏技術發展的足跡。

  生活不僅是音樂的源泉,它更是推動音樂創作和加速二胡演奏技術發展的強大動力。在當今世界科學技術已進入了信息革命的時代,尤為如此。如果說以往二胡以演奏慢速深沉涵蓄、中速抒情歡唱旋律為長的話,那么,今天現代二胡演奏技術則以高速運弓、快中見長、剛中含柔為發展主型。如今,二胡的快弓技術已完全可與小提琴并駕齊驅。

  二胡藝術發展到今天,出現了群英聚會、妙曲競起、繁弦爭鳴的繁榮局面。閔惠芬的《寶玉哭靈》、《李陵碑》等,用大幅度的滑揉等技法來模仿越劇和京劇的唱腔音樂,似一枝奇葩散發著獨特的芳香。劉長福的二胡曲《草原新牧民》充滿了濃郁的草原氣息,樂曲的華彩樂段把馬頭琴技法表現得惟妙惟肖,使人拍案叫絕。陳耀星描寫部隊戰斗生活的。《乘勝追擊》、《發射場上》,美妙的音響和神奇的速度更是令人驚嘆折服。春天的花園要靠色彩繽紛的花草來點綴,二胡藝術的發展也有待于眾家揚己之長、各顯神威。不過,現代二胡演奏技術的發展還是以快弓技術飛速發展為特征。在以改造和完善樂器本身結構為手段,來達到發展二胡演奏技術目的的努力中,雙千斤二胡闖出了一條可喜的希望之路。使用雙千斤,可使內弦空弦音比一般二胡向下擴展了一個純四度音程,音色低沉渾厚。這條改革措施已為二胡界所肯定,一些雙千斤二胡曲應時而生。為增大音量,使音色更優美,對二胡琴筒形狀的革新也捷報頻傳。另外,人們還試圖給二胡增加一條弦,使其演變為“三胡”,但尚未最后定型和推廣使用。再者,尚有人一直呼吁將二胡弓子從兩根琴弦的夾制中解放出來。

  二胡這種樂器的革新必將為二胡增添動人的音符。科學技術的發展曾不止一次地證明,今天富有浪漫色彩的幻想有可能成為明天的現實,科學的幻想往往是科學技術取得重大進展的前提。我們完全可以相信并期待在不久的將來出現更加完美無瑕的二胡新品種,進而使二胡演奏技術的發展呈現更輝煌的前景。二胡演奏技術的發展史冊上,前人的業績熠熠生輝,激勵著后人奮進搏擊。

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