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二胡自学自练基本方法,基础入门学习方法

发布日期:2017-04-15

  毫无疑问,坚持练习是保持和提高二胡琴技的基本途径。尤其接近老年后,因受机能快速衰退的自然规律影响,过去常说的一句老话“唱不离口、艺不脱手?#26412;?#26174;得更为灵验了,拉二胡当然逃避不了这一现实。五十年代学二胡的人大?#32423;?#21548;到过“千日胡琴百日萧”的顺口溜,意指学二胡有一定难度,大约需要近三年时间,不能急功近利。还有一句是“会拉的一条线,?#25442;?#25289;的一大遍?#20445;?#25351;拉琴时弓毛在琴筒上留下的轨迹正确的方法应当保持一条线,错误的运弓方法在琴筒上的痕迹是乱七八糟的。寥寥几字却极其通俗地?#24471;?#20102;弓毛与琴弦保持垂直、贴近琴筒和臂腕配合的运弓效果。涉及二胡技能的训练,网上已有众多专家发表了详尽的论述,值得?#19994;?#19994;余爱好者去认真学习揣摸。有条件的中老年胡友能做到定时练习,而事实上,有很多中老年胡友们并不清闲啊!往往练琴的时间常常不能保证,如不?#21672;?#23433;排,真可谓“一日不练如三日兮,一周不练两手发虚,一月不练心中无底,一年不练全功尽弃”。抽空练琴固然也是一种弥补,但方法不?#20445;?#25928;果往往也?#25442;?#24456;好。除仍应?#30784;?#22522;本方法”提供的原则进行外,还要考虑练习强度的合理分配。

  (一)入法万变不离其宗

  不管自习方法各持何道,总的说来,最有效的方法应遵循:“一个坚持,两项规律,三大克服,四不放过”的基本原则,万变不离其宗。

  一个坚持

  作为业余自学者,由于缺乏专业培训形成的压力,因此首先要有坚持始终的学习精神,充满激情、自我施压,多听多唱多模仿,持之以恒。

“爱它一生不容易,持恒方称二胡情”

  两项规律

  一是对每首新曲,一定要遵循‘会唱才会拉’的规律。人的一切动作靠大脑指挥,?#35748;?#21270;入脑,动作?#20174;?#25165;会敏捷不走弯路。这里指的唱曲不仅是识谱,而?#21069;?#19968;听二唱三放开的规律进?#23567;?#19968;听就是对全曲的演奏首先应对照曲谱反复收听,直到曲谱听熟、音韵入心,然后把该曲应有的风格和韵味哼出来,对乐曲有了基本认识的基础上再动手大胆放开练习,首?#25991;?#25289;多少是多少,无需拘谨。

  二是‘熟才能生巧’的规律,长弓稍快后慢解决力度均衡、短弓?#26376;?#21518;快解决快捷清晰,某些章节甚至要一小节一小节地练习,在此基础上再逐渐达到要求的速?#30465;?#24613;于求成则欲速而不达,很可能高不成?#31570;?#23601;,或迟迟不能过关,甚至丧失信心拉一辈子也残缺不全。

“律遵高一尺,艺出高一丈”。

  三大克服

  即克服随意性、盲目性、浅表性?#28909;?#24615;。

随意性:指法?#35805;?#35268;矩,弓法随心所欲,兴致来了,猛拉一通,忘乎所以,不讲效果。

盲目性?#22909;挥心?#26631;,东一榔头、西?#35805;?#23376;,曲曲缺臂、调调少腿?#25442;?#33258;不量力,哪壶不开提哪壶,结果事与愿违,进展迟缓。浅表性:不求胜解,自鸣得意,技无一所长,意不知所云,会拉一大筐,曲曲不咋样。“三性为大害,自学难成才”。

  四不放过

  音准失度不放过?#22909;?#25353;一指,都要力求准确到位,这可是最基本的要求,一‘准’压三丑啊!

节奏不符不放过:特别对于引子、华彩及自由部分,这是乐曲?#26408;?#21326;之一,专家演示了最动听的优美节奏,老老实?#30340;?#20223;学练,即可以达到画龙点睛的效果?#25381;?#21040;难点不放过:对于疑难章节,如高难指法、重点弓法,一定要做到不到位不放过,?#24515;?#21322;途而废,坚持下去,技能必将水涨船高;

贯气不够不放过:贯气是全曲演奏要尽力体现‘节奏有序、强弱分明、前后呼应、整体性好’,或荡气回肠、或?#24615;?#27969;水,如同书法作品一样,要凸出神韵,才能挥手惊人。“要想二胡拉得好,四不放过必经道”。

  (二)基本功是骨架,感情是血肉

  二胡演奏其基本功技巧只是骨架,沉入意境奏出感情才能有血有肉地凸出神韵。业余爱好者在技能上与专业人员相比,可以说有天壤之别。科班培养的专业人才,一个学期只教练2~3首独奏曲,大部分时间是学拉枯燥乏味、奇难无比的练习曲,他们一年等于业余五年有余。他们的基本功肯定让你自叹不如,高者可令业余人士无地自容。但对乐曲的理解和表达,专业人士能达到的业余人士也未必不能达到,?#27492;?#35859;‘技拉不如,心拉作补’的道理。

  笔者以为二胡曲通常可分为技巧(为主)型、意念(为主)型及混合型三类,演奏则分为技奏与心奏。现以典型乐曲为例,

  技巧为主代表乐曲如?#21512;?#36865;公粮、草原三马(指赛马、奔驰千里草原、战马奔腾),空山鸟语、金珠玛等,曲韵通俗?#29366;錚?#20854;技巧高于意?#24120;?#22522;本功达到什么程度,通常就可以模仿完成到相应的程度。但对战马奔腾这类高难曲目,技能不够,勉为其难?#25442;?#26377;好效果。

  意念为主代表乐曲如:江河水、病中吟,汉宫、二泉、怀乡行?#40644;?#31867;典型特点是全曲并无突出技术?#20064;此?#23481;易拉时难,即使专业人士也未必每次都能拉好,涉世不深,心力不够,靠单纯模仿不易?#21892;?#36824;需要从模仿中去?#36153;把?#22863;家所表现的曲意,同时也要发挥自己?#21335;?#20687;力,训练用意念去完成两手的配合,以全身心的投入来抒展乐曲的感情,如此练习提高心奏能力才会有实?#24066;?#36827;步。如做不到这一点,拉这类乐曲将会有气无力、平淡乏味。

  混合型乐曲如:月夜、壮别、闲居吟,三门峡与豫北情,这类乐曲在技巧和意境都需要较高的表现力,缺一不可,否则必将成为让人烦心的一堆垃圾,若想练习随想曲、协奏曲之类更高级的乐曲,则更是如此。

  显然达到以上要求并不容易,但中老年人有丰富?#26494;?#32463;历和较强的理解力,这种优势运用得?#20445;?#36873;择好适宜和喜爱的乐曲,坚持做下去必能更上一层楼,从而感到充实和陶醉。

对于歌曲类曲目的练习,大体上可按上述前两类进行,有的歌曲把音准、节奏、基本风格掌握好就能顺利完成;有些抒情歌曲韵味十足,不用心去练,也会事与愿违。

  (三)将效果评价视作陶冶情操的添加剂

  作为二胡爱好者,当然希望通过展示自己的实力而得到恰如其分的评价,如参加考级活动等。即便是中老年业余人士,大多虽无考级的愿望,但同样很想通过?#25345;制?#20215;方式来了解自己的真实水平,以保持和激发自学热情。

最简便易行的自我评价方法是:对于同一首曲子,即按前列的‘四不放过’的要求,每做到一项,就是一大进步。但第?#21335;鉅话?#24456;难自?#20449;?#21035;,你可以跟着CD拉,如90—100%能跟上,?#24471;?#20854;进步已十分明显。

  级差类比的方法,也就是能在大体相同的时间内完成高一级的同类乐曲的练习,并能继续学会同级中的另一曲目,表明你的水平无可非议地已经上了一个台阶。

另有一种说法“二胡拉得好不好,二泉印?#24405;?#20998;晓?#20445;弧?#20108;胡拉得快不快,奔驰千里可?#28909;?#22823;意是指能拉好‘二泉’、‘奔驰’这类经典乐曲,足见你的综合实力已达到较高水准。

通过胡友之间的交流,从取长补短中当然更能了解自己的实际水平。

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