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二胡自學自練基本方法,基礎入門學習方法

發布日期:2017-04-15

  毫無疑問,堅持練習是保持和提高二胡琴技的基本途徑。尤其接近老年后,因受機能快速衰退的自然規律影響,過去常說的一句老話“唱不離口、藝不脫手”就顯得更為靈驗了,拉二胡當然逃避不了這一現實。五十年代學二胡的人大約都聽到過“千日胡琴百日蕭”的順口溜,意指學二胡有一定難度,大約需要近三年時間,不能急功近利。還有一句是“會拉的一條線,不會拉的一大遍”,指拉琴時弓毛在琴筒上留下的軌跡正確的方法應當保持一條線,錯誤的運弓方法在琴筒上的痕跡是亂七八糟的。寥寥幾字卻極其通俗地說明了弓毛與琴弦保持垂直、貼近琴筒和臂腕配合的運弓效果。涉及二胡技能的訓練,網上已有眾多專家發表了詳盡的論述,值得我等業余愛好者去認真學習揣摸。有條件的中老年胡友能做到定時練習,而事實上,有很多中老年胡友們并不清閑啊!往往練琴的時間常常不能保證,如不妥善安排,真可謂“一日不練如三日兮,一周不練兩手發虛,一月不練心中無底,一年不練全功盡棄”。抽空練琴固然也是一種彌補,但方法不當,效果往往也不會很好。除仍應按“基本方法”提供的原則進行外,還要考慮練習強度的合理分配。

  (一)入法萬變不離其宗

  不管自習方法各持何道,總的說來,最有效的方法應遵循:“一個堅持,兩項規律,三大克服,四不放過”的基本原則,萬變不離其宗。

  一個堅持

  作為業余自學者,由于缺乏專業培訓形成的壓力,因此首先要有堅持始終的學習精神,充滿激情、自我施壓,多聽多唱多模仿,持之以恒。

“愛它一生不容易,持恒方稱二胡情”

  兩項規律

  一是對每首新曲,一定要遵循‘會唱才會拉’的規律。人的一切動作靠大腦指揮,先消化入腦,動作反映才會敏捷不走彎路。這里指的唱曲不僅是識譜,而是按一聽二唱三放開的規律進行。一聽就是對全曲的演奏首先應對照曲譜反復收聽,直到曲譜聽熟、音韻入心,然后把該曲應有的風格和韻味哼出來,對樂曲有了基本認識的基礎上再動手大膽放開練習,首次能拉多少是多少,無需拘謹。

  二是‘熟才能生巧’的規律,長弓稍快后慢解決力度均衡、短弓稍慢后快解決快捷清晰,某些章節甚至要一小節一小節地練習,在此基礎上再逐漸達到要求的速率。急于求成則欲速而不達,很可能高不成低不就,或遲遲不能過關,甚至喪失信心拉一輩子也殘缺不全。

“律遵高一尺,藝出高一丈”。

  三大克服

  即克服隨意性、盲目性、淺表性等三性。

隨意性:指法不按規矩,弓法隨心所欲,興致來了,猛拉一通,忘乎所以,不講效果。

盲目性:沒有目標,東一榔頭、西一棒子,曲曲缺臂、調調少腿;或自不量力,哪壺不開提哪壺,結果事與愿違,進展遲緩。淺表性:不求勝解,自鳴得意,技無一所長,意不知所云,會拉一大筐,曲曲不咋樣。“三性為大害,自學難成才”。

  四不放過

  音準失度不放過:每按一指,都要力求準確到位,這可是最基本的要求,一‘準’壓三丑啊!

節奏不符不放過:特別對于引子、華彩及自由部分,這是樂曲的精華之一,專家演示了最動聽的優美節奏,老老實實模仿學練,即可以達到畫龍點睛的效果;遇到難點不放過:對于疑難章節,如高難指法、重點弓法,一定要做到不到位不放過,切莫半途而廢,堅持下去,技能必將水漲船高;

貫氣不夠不放過:貫氣是全曲演奏要盡力體現‘節奏有序、強弱分明、前后呼應、整體性好’,或蕩氣回腸、或行云流水,如同書法作品一樣,要凸出神韻,才能揮手驚人。“要想二胡拉得好,四不放過必經道”。

  (二)基本功是骨架,感情是血肉

  二胡演奏其基本功技巧只是骨架,沉入意境奏出感情才能有血有肉地凸出神韻。業余愛好者在技能上與專業人員相比,可以說有天壤之別。科班培養的專業人才,一個學期只教練2~3首獨奏曲,大部分時間是學拉枯燥乏味、奇難無比的練習曲,他們一年等于業余五年有余。他們的基本功肯定讓你自嘆不如,高者可令業余人士無地自容。但對樂曲的理解和表達,專業人士能達到的業余人士也未必不能達到,即所謂‘技拉不如,心拉作補’的道理。

  筆者以為二胡曲通常可分為技巧(為主)型、意念(為主)型及混合型三類,演奏則分為技奏與心奏。現以典型樂曲為例,

  技巧為主代表樂曲如:喜送公糧、草原三馬(指賽馬、奔馳千里草原、戰馬奔騰),空山鳥語、金珠瑪等,曲韻通俗易達,其技巧高于意境,基本功達到什么程度,通常就可以模仿完成到相應的程度。但對戰馬奔騰這類高難曲目,技能不夠,勉為其難不會有好效果。

  意念為主代表樂曲如:江河水、病中吟,漢宮、二泉、懷鄉行;其類典型特點是全曲并無突出技術障礙,看似容易拉時難,即使專業人士也未必每次都能拉好,涉世不深,心力不夠,靠單純模仿不易成氣。還需要從模仿中去追尋演奏家所表現的曲意,同時也要發揮自己的想像力,訓練用意念去完成兩手的配合,以全身心的投入來抒展樂曲的感情,如此練習提高心奏能力才會有實質性進步。如做不到這一點,拉這類樂曲將會有氣無力、平淡乏味。

  混合型樂曲如:月夜、壯別、閑居吟,三門峽與豫北情,這類樂曲在技巧和意境都需要較高的表現力,缺一不可,否則必將成為讓人煩心的一堆垃圾,若想練習隨想曲、協奏曲之類更高級的樂曲,則更是如此。

  顯然達到以上要求并不容易,但中老年人有豐富人生經歷和較強的理解力,這種優勢運用得當,選擇好適宜和喜愛的樂曲,堅持做下去必能更上一層樓,從而感到充實和陶醉。

對于歌曲類曲目的練習,大體上可按上述前兩類進行,有的歌曲把音準、節奏、基本風格掌握好就能順利完成;有些抒情歌曲韻味十足,不用心去練,也會事與愿違。

  (三)將效果評價視作陶冶情操的添加劑

  作為二胡愛好者,當然希望通過展示自己的實力而得到恰如其分的評價,如參加考級活動等。即便是中老年業余人士,大多雖無考級的愿望,但同樣很想通過某種評價方式來了解自己的真實水平,以保持和激發自學熱情。

最簡便易行的自我評價方法是:對于同一首曲子,即按前列的‘四不放過’的要求,每做到一項,就是一大進步。但第四項一般很難自行判別,你可以跟著CD拉,如90—100%能跟上,說明其進步已十分明顯。

  級差類比的方法,也就是能在大體相同的時間內完成高一級的同類樂曲的練習,并能繼續學會同級中的另一曲目,表明你的水平無可非議地已經上了一個臺階。

另有一種說法“二胡拉得好不好,二泉印月見分曉”;“二胡拉得快不快,奔馳千里可比賽”大意是指能拉好‘二泉’、‘奔馳’這類經典樂曲,足見你的綜合實力已達到較高水準。

通過胡友之間的交流,從取長補短中當然更能了解自己的實際水平。

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