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儿童在学习二胡时常见的问题

发布日期:2017-03-08

儿童在学习二胡中,由于自身的心理和生理成长问题,会在学习二胡演奏中产生一些问题,?#22868;页?#36935;到这些毛病时,不应一味的训斥甚至打骂孩子,要知道这些是孩子的天性使然。那么,儿童在学习二胡演奏中,通常会表现出哪些问题,有了这些问题,我们要如何纠正呢,看看?#38901;?#20869;容,您就会对这些有所了解了。

1.二胡持弓方法问题。

小孩持弓不大重视大?#20998;浮?#39135;指与无名指三者之间的相互配合。如果在持弓中这三指的要求、要领都模糊不清,对自己要求又不严,那么就很难起到力点、支点、重点的杠杆作用的协调。由于食指端?#40644;劍?#25351;弓杆)而造成手腕部下塌,运弓手腕无力,力点不清,往往对弓杆失去控制而造成了弓杆的2咪在食指上打滑、转圈或手腕僵硬等毛病。教师一旦发现学生有这些问题要引起高度重视,及时给予纠正,让学生真正体会到:食指有种往上抬起的感觉,大?#20998;?#26377;种往下压的作用,中指拉外弦时有种往里勾的作用。因此手指持弓?#35805;?#23601;用抬、压、顶、勾四个字来概括。因为持弓的好坏直接影响二胡音色、音质及二胡演奏乐曲的成败的大问题,教师在课堂上要反复检查,反复纠正,直到真正符?#24358;?#27714;为止。

2.二胡运弓常见毛病。

少儿运弓往往存在弓速不稳、弓向不直或忽快忽慢、忽上忽下、忽左忽右的不规范动作或者是拉弓快、推弓慢、出弓强、进弓弱、弓根重、弓尖轻的常见毛病。这些常见毛病都是要及时提醒,讲清发生这些问题的根源,让孩子把弓子先稳下来,并按拍子合理分配弓段,同时还要启发学生把弓子拉直并向右前方伸展,琴弓与琴?#39029;?#30452;角,在运弓中要信弓根部,弓根部越离开琴筒则用力也越大,相反越靠近琴筒力量要逐渐减弱,使运弓的力度达到均匀、圆润。

3.二胡左手持琴问题。

左手持琴往往是由于左手虎口持琴的方法不?#20445;?#36896;成了虎口紧夹琴杆,大?#20998;?#36807;于上翘,发生了左手紧张,以使琴杆太直或者由于大臂的舒展松驰不够,把琴?#36865;?#21521;右侧,遮住了脸部,严重影响?#25628;?#22863;的形象。对这一毛病,教师要注意学生虎口平伸、松开,大?#20998;?#24456;自然的平放在琴杆的内侧,使琴杆自然的倒向,演奏时虎口要尽可能松动自如,减少磨擦,这对将来学习?#35805;?#20063;是极有利的。

4.二胡左手切弦的?#20013;?#38382;题。

切弦的?#20013;?#35201;求要规范,有些学生?#31570;?#22826;注意自己的按弦?#20013;危?#20063;?#35805;?#25945;师的要求去做,很随意的横侧在琴弦上?#20013;南?#37324;几乎形成横握琴杆,以致影响切弦的力度、力点?#31570;?#27861;,或者左手指伸得太直或分得太开,影响按弦音准和?#35805;眩?#27491;确的切弦?#20013;问牽?#24038;手很自然以半握拳式平靠在琴杆的千斤下方,四个手指顺着音位方向排列,指关节弯曲,指尖应顺排在各音的上方要求自然放松的持在琴杆上,这种切弦?#20013;渭让?#35266;大方,又方便操作,对将来技术的发挥是大有好处的。

5.二胡指力与音质问题。

?#35805;?#35748;为只要手指能触及到琴弦上就行了,其切弦的指力与力点怎样?音质如何?不去分析。切弦时常常出现音质松垮、皮塌,手指无力,音型模糊不清等现象,或者手指过分紧张,手指关节不灵,起落迟钝、呆板。正确的切弦方法是在左手持琴规范的基础上,手指的起落要干净利索,颗粒般清晰,手指的各关节?#20960;?#26377;弹性,使其力量全部输送到指尖上。反之,指力不到位,切弦的音质显得苍白无力。总之,二胡的学习是一个系统工程,不能顾此失彼,在注意右手运弓的同时,还要注意左手的各种技能的发挥。

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