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兒童在學習二胡時常見的問題

發布日期:2017-03-08

兒童在學習二胡中,由于自身的心理和生理成長問題,會在學習二胡演奏中產生一些問題,當家長遇到這些毛病時,不應一味的訓斥甚至打罵孩子,要知道這些是孩子的天性使然。那么,兒童在學習二胡演奏中,通常會表現出哪些問題,有了這些問題,我們要如何糾正呢,看看以下內容,您就會對這些有所了解了。

1.二胡持弓方法問題。

小孩持弓不大重視大姆指、食指與無名指三者之間的相互配合。如果在持弓中這三指的要求、要領都模糊不清,對自己要求又不嚴,那么就很難起到力點、支點、重點的杠桿作用的協調。由于食指端不平(指弓桿)而造成手腕部下塌,運弓手腕無力,力點不清,往往對弓桿失去控制而造成了弓桿的2咪在食指上打滑、轉圈或手腕僵硬等毛病。教師一旦發現學生有這些問題要引起高度重視,及時給予糾正,讓學生真正體會到:食指有種往上抬起的感覺,大姆指有種往下壓的作用,中指拉外弦時有種往里勾的作用。因此手指持弓一般就用抬、壓、頂、勾四個字來概括。因為持弓的好壞直接影響二胡音色、音質及二胡演奏樂曲的成敗的大問題,教師在課堂上要反復檢查,反復糾正,直到真正符合要求為止。

2.二胡運弓常見毛病。

少兒運弓往往存在弓速不穩、弓向不直或忽快忽慢、忽上忽下、忽左忽右的不規范動作或者是拉弓快、推弓慢、出弓強、進弓弱、弓根重、弓尖輕的常見毛病。這些常見毛病都是要及時提醒,講清發生這些問題的根源,讓孩子把弓子先穩下來,并按拍子合理分配弓段,同時還要啟發學生把弓子拉直并向右前方伸展,琴弓與琴弦成直角,在運弓中要信弓根部,弓根部越離開琴筒則用力也越大,相反越靠近琴筒力量要逐漸減弱,使運弓的力度達到均勻、圓潤。

3.二胡左手持琴問題。

左手持琴往往是由于左手虎口持琴的方法不當,造成了虎口緊夾琴桿,大姆指過于上翹,發生了左手緊張,以使琴桿太直或者由于大臂的舒展松馳不夠,把琴桿推向右側,遮住了臉部,嚴重影響了演奏的形象。對這一毛病,教師要注意學生虎口平伸、松開,大姆指很自然的平放在琴桿的內側,使琴桿自然的倒向,演奏時虎口要盡可能松動自如,減少磨擦,這對將來學習換把也是極有利的。

4.二胡左手切弦的手形問題。

切弦的手形要求要規范,有些學生就不太注意自己的按弦手形,也不按教師的要求去做,很隨意的橫側在琴弦上手心向里幾乎形成橫握琴桿,以致影響切弦的力度、力點和操法,或者左手指伸得太直或分得太開,影響按弦音準和換把,正確的切弦手形是,左手很自然以半握拳式平靠在琴桿的千斤下方,四個手指順著音位方向排列,指關節彎曲,指尖應順排在各音的上方要求自然放松的持在琴桿上,這種切弦手形既美觀大方,又方便操作,對將來技術的發揮是大有好處的。

5.二胡指力與音質問題。

一般認為只要手指能觸及到琴弦上就行了,其切弦的指力與力點怎樣?音質如何?不去分析。切弦時常常出現音質松垮、皮塌,手指無力,音型模糊不清等現象,或者手指過分緊張,手指關節不靈,起落遲鈍、呆板。正確的切弦方法是在左手持琴規范的基礎上,手指的起落要干凈利索,顆粒般清晰,手指的各關節都富有彈性,使其力量全部輸送到指尖上。反之,指力不到位,切弦的音質顯得蒼白無力。總之,二胡的學習是一個系統工程,不能顧此失彼,在注意右手運弓的同時,還要注意左手的各種技能的發揮。

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? 2006~2020 龍韻二胡官網 | 江西九江龍韻二胡廠版權所有 | 贛ICP備15012806號-1 | 贛公網安備贛公網安備 36040302000129號

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