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怎么學二胡,學二胡有哪些訣竅?

發布日期:2017-02-22

我們每個愛好二胡的朋友,學習二胡的朋友都必須面對的一個問題就是如何學好二胡,我在這些年的教學過程中積累了一些經驗,和大家一起分享,希望能對大家有所啟發,就算是拋磚引玉吧!

第一,我認為無論是誰都必需面對和弄清楚,就是為什么要學習二胡。是為了愛好、陶冶情操、學習一門技能、考級、將來謀個出路等等。當然這里邊有急功近利的,我很反對那種學琴就是為了考級的思想,我認為只有端正了學習二胡的態度和方向(正確的方向),我們學習才能長久、才能事半功倍,才能學到真正的本領。

第二,興趣是第一任老師,如果沒有對二胡濃厚的興趣而一味地機械地去學習,其過程是痛苦的,結果也是可以預料的。現在有不少家長不顧孩子的意愿,強迫孩子學習二胡,根本不顧孩子的感受,我認為是不正確的。一個人如果長期做自己不愿意做的事,那是多么痛苦啊!我們可以去想想看。關于興趣,我認為是可以培養的,人生來的天份當然是不可磨滅的,但后天的培養也是非常重要的,興趣同樣可以培養。而且在不同的階段還需要不同方式的興趣激發,比如剛開始學琴的孩子,家長可以讓他(她)聽聽通俗一些、抒情一些的的二胡音樂。也可以通過看音樂會的方式(當然是有條件的地方、還有孩子不可以太小,一般6周歲以上!),來激發孩子希望學習的興趣。這個希望就是將來的希望,就是將來練習的動力。已經學琴的孩子也要定期培養興趣,這就如同讀書一樣,不能光讀死書,要融會貫通就必須走出去,讓孩子經常性地參加班級的表演,開個家庭音樂會也可以,同時用掌聲給孩子鼓勵并告訴她(他)演奏的非常好,這樣孩子就會感到自己的價值,同時就能在學琴和練琴中獲得動力和耐心。

第三,有了正確的學習方向和興趣,最重要的應該是具體練習的過程了,那么這個過程要注意什么呢?我只想用三句話來概括:1.“注意力高度集中”、2.“細致耐心”、3.“放慢練習”,這三條缺一不可。忽視任何一項都會影響練琴的效率。現分析如下:1.注意力要高度集中,有的同學在練二胡的時候,一邊練一邊走神,結果練了2小時也不知道自己練了什么,一點進步也沒有。我特別強調練琴時的注意力集中,我們平時經常講要用心去拉就是這個意思,如果注意力很集中的話練習15分鐘就比不集中練2小時還有效率。2.細致耐心,如果練習時沒有耐心,遇到困難的地方總是想繞過去,或粗心大意連樂譜都記錯,那練習有什么作用呢?更不要談進步了!3.放慢練習,這一點對每個習琴者都是適用的,為什么有些朋友演奏的總是模模糊糊呢?技巧的地方總是聽的不舒服呢?還有遇到特殊地方的時候總是音準或節奏缺把火候呢?其實都是因為沒有放慢去練習,如果把重點的地方放慢了,就等于把一個不清楚的字放大了,不就可以看得很清楚了嗎?所以只要有耐心,注意體會、放慢練習一定可以解決99%的問題的!

第四,二胡演奏技巧的定位與練習。如何練習二胡技巧這一點首先應該明確的我想應該是技巧在二胡演奏中的定位,就是如何看待的意思,有不少人把二胡演奏的技巧看的過于重要,從而忽視了在具體演奏中的主要的東西,而片面夸大了技巧的表現。其實這是錯誤的,這就好比一件衣服,衣服的主題部分當然是最重要的,而衣服上的小裝飾是增加美觀成份的,如果把衣服上的裝飾弄的超過了衣服本身,那會給人什么樣的感覺呢?所以,我認為首先必須要處理好演奏中的技巧的準確定位,做到恰到好處,才是練習使用技巧的關鍵。練習二胡技巧切不能操之過急,有些特殊技巧是需要時間的,不要強迫自己一下子就能熟練掌握,要知道,別人也是經過長時間的練習才能熟練掌握的,所以一定要給自己時間,不然不是太不公平了嗎?呵呵!比如二胡中的駿馬嘶鳴有多種方法,最常用的的就是快速連頓弓,其實很多朋友都想學到手,如果你真的掌握了,那是非常簡單的,如果你認真去體會也一定能學會的,一時學不會千萬不要急,要把你沒有掌握的技巧和技能當作一種財富,因為他對你是那么有魅力,那樣就不會太著急了。而等你已經掌握他的時候他就變成了另外一種財富,對你的魅力就沒那么大了,而變成了一種愉快!一種快樂,是成功的快樂!

第五,關于樂感的培養。拉二胡的朋友很關注的問題就是我怎樣才能演奏的動聽,能一下子打動人!其實就是關于樂感的問題,這是短時間學不來的,他依賴演奏者的內心對樂曲的理解對生活的態度和對人生的看法,多種因素。

學二胡

練琴時的口訣:

關于弓法的重要性——她說:“長、短、連、頓、抖、跳、拋,運弓有序布局妙”

關于持琴——“琴身放穩稍左斜,利于操作要穩定,兩肩兩臂須自然,坐凈端正不塌腰。”

關于持弓—— “弓子功夫要學好,好像蓋房打地基,端平握住腕靈活,擺在琴筒扒住弦,平持疊持拉著走,換弦無痕是關鍵。”

關于按弦——“左手虎口包住琴,不緊不松要自然,指尖觸弦稍彎曲,動作要小手形圓。”

關于音準——“二胡音準難掌握,音程關系要弄清,各調指距多變化,換把流暢要到位。”

關于節奏——“音符節拍要奏準,長短變化須弄清,分出句子講語氣,流暢生動才好聽。”

關于力度——“空弦練習很重要,把琴拉好不虛躁,兩手動作要協調,動作規范耐力強。

二胡練習相對難易歌——“左手容易右手難,拉弓容易推弓難,外弦容易內弦難,推拉容易換弦難,上行容易下行難,按指容易音準難,技巧容易表現難,裝飾容易韻味難,看似容易學著難。”

成功二胡演奏的“五條件”,那就是:聲、情、技、形、韻。

一、聲 琴聲關鍵是要感人,聲音要柔美、純正,音色要多樣;

二、情 要真摯,琴聲是心聲的反映,要把對作品的理解,對生活的感受帶到演奏的曲子中;

三、技 技法精湛,運用嫻熟,技術是為內容服務的,生動自然才能收到情理之中,意料之外的效果; 

四、形 演奏者的形象,準確自然,美觀,大方,包括持琴的姿勢,操琴的方法,面部的表情,都要和所演奏的樂曲渾然一體,才能“經聽又經看”; 

五、韻 韻味,這是最高層次的要求,韻味要準確、地道,淳樸。

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? 2006~2020 龍韻二胡官網 | 江西九江龍韻二胡廠版權所有 | 贛ICP備15012806號-1 | 贛公網安備贛公網安備 36040302000129號

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