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選擇二胡弦的重要性和使用注意事項

發布日期:2014-03-05

    二胡發聲的主角是誰?平常我們只要討論到二胡,大家都免不了去說二胡的木質和蟒皮,當然也不時有人會提及到琴碼甚至音墊等,但很少有人去關注二胡的弦。其實,二胡的木、蟒皮、碼等等都只是在二胡中起到支承、調節、聲音傳播介質、放大器等的輔助作用的部分,二胡真正發出優美動聽聲音的主角是二胡的弦!二胡弦就有如人的聲帶,人們所謂的拉二胡,其實就是利用按指和拉弓操縱改變著二胡弦的振動頻率、振幅,使其發出我們需要的聲效而已,操縱弦的技能就是我們平常所說的拉二胡的水平,無論是誰拉二胡,都不應忽視對二胡弦使用常識的了解,不應忽視對二胡弦適時進行更換以維持其良好的性能,因為正確使用二胡弦對二胡的演奏效果有著直接重要的影響。

     別看不起眼的二胡弦,要求十分嚴格。內弦為啥粗?粗多少?外弦為啥細?細多少?照平常受力習慣分析,外弦應該粗,因為外弦擰的緊,受力大,但如果將振動學和聲學考慮進去結果就相反,因為,粗的內弦振動遲緩,聲音低沉,所以二胡外弦和內弦的粗細不是按受力大小來決定的,而是由振動和聲學原理決定的。二胡弦的內外弦粗細也應有嚴格的規定,要按照二胡定調的特性(或許要考慮一般定D-A調的特性)來決定,這也決定了二胡弦和其他樂器的弦一般不能互換使用(也有二胡弦長等方面的綜合考量)。另外,二胡內外弦還要按照五度音律關系設計,我們也曾經討論過二胡內外弦4度或7度等等跨距的問題,我想,如果我們二胡定調不按五度,或許也就需要用不一樣的二胡內外弦(此只是設想,未獲驗證)。

  關于二胡弦的性能,應該有多個方面的指標要求,如抗拉強度、延伸率、斷面收縮率、疲勞強度、內應力、防銹、耐磨等等,雖說這些性能要求是二胡弦設計制造過程中必須把控的東西,但我們拉二胡的人也要知道這些性能在二胡弦的使用中會發生變化,特別要知道二胡弦性能被破壞會對二胡演奏效果產生直接重要的影響。首先,二胡弦會磨損,二胡發聲的本質是弓毛與二胡弦的摩擦,因此,二胡弦的磨損是必然的,二胡弦磨損后,會改變二胡弦的截面積,也改變二胡與弓毛的接觸面,進一步推理,二胡內外弦的磨損是不平衡的(有內弦拉動頻次的原因,也有弦粗細等等的原因),這種磨損或者不平衡的磨損和會造成兩種后果,一個是破壞原設計的二胡定調或內外弦純五度的音律關系,二是弓與弦摩擦面的改變使得音效變壞(磨損使得弓毛與弦的摩擦極不平衡)。其次,二胡弦會變細或斷弦,二胡弦的設計有抗拉強度及疲勞強度要求,有延伸率指標,但二胡弦磨損及反復調弦會使這些性能指標發生改變,改變的結果有兩種,一是斷弦,當你參加一次非常隆重盛大的獨奏演出活動,一定要看看自己的弦是否用久了,到了抗拉或疲勞極限的弦可能就在你的正規演出中斷掉,這是非常尷尬的事,如果你不注意這點,但也是你自己的失誤。另一個方面,弦在反復調試后會延伸變細,這是我們最不易覺察和容易忽視的地方,有時我們調弦定調或按指音準把不穩時,請不要放過這個原因(特別是遇到有一種現象:內外弦協調但音不準,音準但內外弦不協調),因為變細的弦會影響到你的定弦定調,甚至影響到你的按指習慣,合為一句話,就是你拉二胡的音準將會很難把控。

  關于二胡弦使用的誤區及其修正。二胡弦使用的誤區之一是二胡弦不斷就不換,這個觀點是錯誤的,錯誤的根據前面其實都說了,原因就是二胡弦磨損了,二胡弦疲勞了,二胡弦直徑變細了,二胡弦的音律和音效被破壞了,因此二胡弦在某些時候不斷也得換。二胡弦使用的第二個誤區是二胡弦斷哪根換哪根,這個觀點同樣是不科學的,新弦的性能、粗細有嚴格的規定,成對換的弦磨損及性能改變相對平衡,要換一根不換一根對五度音律的破壞性更大。因此,對二胡弦的使用,要強調一句大家已熟視無睹的話,這就是二胡弦包裝袋上寫的那句“二胡弦的壽命2-3個月”,甚至還要加上“勤拉的二胡弦要勤換”。

  結語:

  1. 二胡弦是二胡發聲的主角,二胡弦的操控能力決定拉二胡的水平。

  2.二胡弦具有嚴格的粗細、性能、音律關系要求,要想拉好二胡得先選一付品質好的二胡弦。二胡弦拉久了會因磨損和反復調弦而使性能發生改變,強度、音律關系、音效會惡化,二胡演奏的效果會變差,二胡把控的難度會增加,要掌握好二胡弦的壽命周期和更換頻率,適時更換二胡弦,維持二胡弦良好的使用性能。一些音樂學院的教授,建議專業人士一般三個月更換,三個月二胡弦的張力會大大下降。影響音色的發揮。

  3.要克服二胡弦不定時更換或不成對更換的誤區。


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