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选择二胡弦的重要性和使用注意事项

发布日期:2014-03-05

    二胡发声的主角是谁?平常我们只要讨论到二胡,大?#21494;?#20813;不了去说二胡的木质和蟒皮,当然也不时有人会提及到琴码甚至音垫等,但很少有人去关注二胡的弦。其实,二胡的木、蟒皮、码等等都只是在二胡中起到支?#23567;?#35843;节、声音传播介?#30465;?#25918;大器等的辅助作用的部分,二胡真正发出优美动听声音的主角是二胡的弦!二胡弦就有如人的声带,人们所谓的拉二胡,其实就是利用按指和拉弓操纵改变着二胡弦的振动频?#30465;?#25391;幅,使其发出我们需要的声效而已,操纵弦的技能就是我们平常所说的拉二胡的水平,无论是谁拉二胡,都不应忽视对二胡弦使用常识的了解,不应忽视对二胡弦适时进行更换以维?#21046;?#33391;好的性能,因为正确使用二胡弦对二胡的演奏效果有着直接重要的影响。

     别看?#40644;?#30524;的二胡弦,要求十分严格。内弦为啥粗?#30475;?#22810;少?#23458;?#24358;为啥细?细多少?照平常受力习惯分析,外弦应?#20040;鄭?#22240;为外弦拧的紧,受力大,但如果将振动学和声学考虑进去结果就相反,因为,粗的内弦振动迟缓,声音低沉,所以二胡外弦和内弦的粗细不?#21069;?#21463;力大小来决定的,而是由振动和声学原理决定的。二胡弦的内外弦粗细也应有严格的规定,要按照二胡定调的特性(或许要考虑?#35805;?#23450;D-A调的特性)来决定,这也决定了二胡弦和其他?#21046;?#30340;弦?#35805;?#19981;能互换使用(也有二胡弦长等方面的综合考量)。另外,二胡内外弦还要按照五度音律关系设计,我们也曾经讨论过二胡内外弦4?#28982;?度等等跨距的问题,我想,如果我们二胡定调?#35805;?#20116;度,或许也就需要用不一样的二胡内外弦(此只?#24039;?#24819;,未获验证)。

  关于二胡弦的性能,应该有多个方面的指标要求,如抗拉强度、?#30001;炻省?#26029;面收缩?#30465;?#30130;劳强度、内应力、防锈、耐磨等等,虽说这些性能要求是二胡弦设计制造过程中必须把控的东西,但我们拉二胡的人也要知道这些性能在二胡弦的使用中会发生变化,特别要知道二胡弦性能?#40644;?#22351;会对二胡演奏效果产生直接重要的影响。首先,二胡弦会磨损,二胡发声的本质是弓毛与二胡弦的摩擦,因此,二胡弦的磨损是必然的,二胡弦磨损后,会改变二胡弦的截面积,也改变二胡与弓毛的接触面,进一步推理,二胡内外弦的磨损是?#40644;?#34913;的(?#24515;?#24358;拉动频次的原因,也有弦粗细等等的原因),这种磨损或者?#40644;?#34913;的磨损和会造成两种后果,一个是破坏原设计的二胡定调或内外弦纯五度的音律关系,二是弓与弦摩擦面的改变使得音效变坏(磨损使得弓毛与弦的摩?#33391;黄?#34913;)。其次,二胡弦会变细或断弦,二胡弦的设计有抗拉强度及疲劳强度要求,有?#30001;炻手?#26631;,但二胡弦磨损及反复调弦会使这些性能指标发生改变,改变的结果有两种,一是断弦,当你参加一次?#27973;?#38534;重盛大的独奏演出活动,一定要看看自己的弦是否用久了,到了抗拉或疲劳极限的弦可能就在你的正规演出中?#31995;簦?#36825;是?#27973;^限?#30340;事,如果你不注意这点,但也是你自己的失误。另一个方面,弦在反复调试后会?#30001;?#21464;细,这是我们最不易觉察和容易忽视的地方,有时我们调弦定调或按指音准把不稳时,请不要放过这个原因(特别是遇到有一种现象:内外弦协调但音不准,音准但内外弦不协调),因为变细的弦会影响到你的定弦定调,甚至影响到你的按指习惯,合为一句话,就是你拉二胡的音准将会很难把控。

  关于二胡弦使用的误区及其修正。二胡弦使用的误区之一是二胡弦不断?#31570;换唬?#36825;个观点是错误的,错误的根据前面其实都说了,原因就是二胡弦磨损了,二胡弦疲劳了,二胡弦直径变细了,二胡弦的音律和音效?#40644;?#22351;了,因此二胡弦在某些时候不?#24358;?#24471;换。二胡弦使用的第二个误区是二胡弦断哪根换哪根,这个观点同样是不科学的,新弦的性能、粗细有严格的规定,成对换的弦磨损及性能改变相对平衡,要换一根?#25442;?#19968;根对五度音律的破坏性更大。因此,对二胡弦的使用,要强调一句大家已熟视无睹的话,这就是二胡弦包装袋上写的那句“二胡弦的寿命2-3个?#38534;保?#29978;至还要加上“勤拉的二胡弦要勤换”。

  结语:

  1. 二胡弦是二胡发声的主角,二胡弦的操控能力决定拉二胡的水平。

  2.二胡弦具有严格的粗细、性能、音律关系要求,要想拉好二胡得先选一付品质好的二胡弦。二胡弦拉久了会因磨损和反复调弦而使性能发生改变,强度、音律关系、音效会恶化,二胡演奏的效果会变差,二胡把控的难度会增加,要掌握好二胡弦的寿命周期和更?#40644;?#29575;,适时更换二胡弦,维持二胡弦良好的使用性能。一些音乐学院的教授,建议专业人士?#35805;?#19977;个月更换,三个月二胡弦的张力会大大下降。影响音色的发挥。

  3.要克服二胡弦不定时更换或不成对更换的误区。


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